When the woolly mammoth ran out, early man turned to roasted vegetables

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Long before early humans in North America grew corn and beans, they were harvesting and cooking the bulbs of lilies, wild onions and other plants, roasting them for days over hot rocks, according to a Texas archaeologist.

The evidence for this practice has long been known of in fire-cracked rock piles found throughout the continent, but archaeologists have tended to ignore it “because a new pyramid or a Clovis arrow point is much sexier,” said archaeologist Alston V. Thoms of Texas A&M University.In two reports published online this week in the Journal of Anthropological Archaeology and the Journal of Archaeological Science, Thoms reported that cooking on hot rocks first became a substitute for cooking on hot coals about 9,000 to 10,500 years ago, then had a sudden jump in popularity about 4,000 years ago.



NKorea may stage nuke test to tame Obama team: study

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North Korea might stage a second atomic test to raise the stakes in nuclear disarmament negotiations next year but the new US administration is unlikely to yield, a South Korean think-tank said Monday.It warned it could not rule out the possibility the North may threaten to suspend denuclearisation, boycott six-party disarmament talks and fire missiles or even a nuclear weapon “to tame the new Obama administration or increase its leverage in the nuclear negotiations.”

“North Korea may become less reasonable in the face of growing challenges from instability of its regime and rumours of leader Kim Jong-Il’s ill health,” said the report from the Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security, which is under the foreign ministry.


A Call to Young Warriors, to All Young People

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Young American Indians today suffer from many problems of the modern world.  Alcohol and drug abuse, early pregnancies, gangs, and psychological disorders are everywhere on the Reservations.  However, a lot of the development of these issues can be historically traced back to World War II or shortly before.

The 1924 Indian Citizenship Act created a special kind of dual citizenship which made American Indians into citizens of the United States (for the first time) as well as citizens of their own sovereign nations.  Finally, Indians could vote.  But also, for the first time, they could be drafted into the military.

The young Lakota Warriors looked at the military as a way to prove themselves as warriors.  They believed it was an honorable extension of the traditional warrior ways.


Dugway’s secret tests: Vets link health problems to chemical exposure

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Dwight Bunn easily becomes breathless and says he has lung scarring from exposure during chemical tests conducted in secrecy on troops while he was stationed at the Army’s Dugway Proving Ground in Tooele County from 1962 to 1963.

David W. Davidson tried to hold his breath while being gassed at Dugway back in 1961. But he now has a laundry list of health maladies, any one of which may be connected to that day 47 years ago.

A doctor told Samuel Waller Anderson Jr. that the peripheral neuropathy in his feet and numbness in his hands was caused by some kind of exposure to chemicals. Anderson was stationed at Dugway from 1952 to 1956 and also was a guinea pig during tests at the isolated 1,300-square-mile Army base.


Nuclear ‘Peace Boat’ docks in Sydney

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For more than 25 years a ship known as the peace boat has sailed around the world, promoting the cause of nuclear disarmament. Today it docked in Sydney, with some special passengers on board – survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in the closing days of the Second World War.


Current Missouri law thwarts nuclear expansion

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The 2009 legislative session will address the need for more base-load electricity generation in Missouri. Ameren Corp. serves 1.2 million Missouri electric customers representing nearly 50% of Missouri’s total consumption. They expect demand to increase 30% by 2020. Ameren is seeking the necessary licenses and funding to construct a second nuclear unit at their existing Callaway nuclear facility near Fulton, MO. Some changes to Missouri laws regulating electric utilities may be needed in order for Ameren or any utility to finance new base-load plants.

Some important facts about nuclear generation include:

  • Nuclear power provides 20% of U.S. electricity, uses no fossil fuel, and represents 71% of our emission-free generation. Another 25.4% comes from hydro-electric and 3.7% from other renewables.
  • The amount of “greenhouse gas” emissions prevented at the nation’s 104 nuclear power plants nearly equals that of all the passenger cars on American highways.


New Energy Secretary will kill Yucca dump

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It appears that President-elect Obama will keep his promise to Nevada to kill the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste dump because his Energy Secretary nominee, Dr. Steven Chu, is firmly opposed to the storage of at least 77,000 tons of highly toxic nuclear waste in the Silver State.

We well remember how President Bush betrayed Nevada early in his presidency by approving the Yucca Mountain site despite elec­toral promises to base his decision on “sound sci­ence.” By contrast, Energy Secretary in-waiting Chu, a Nobel Prize-winning physicist who directs the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, recog­nizes that Yucca Mountain falls short of federal safety standards and that it’s dangerous to store all of the nation’s nuclear waste at one site.

In a 2005 interview, Chu said that the Southern Nevada site would be filled up with waste from all existing civilian and military nuclear waste as soon as it opens its doors. “So we need three or four Yucca Mountains,” he said on a UC-Berkeley Web site. “The other thing is that storing the fuel at Yucca Mountain is supposed to be safe for 10,000 years… (but) the metal casings will proba­bly fail on a scale of 5,000 years.” So much for safety and “sound science